14 novembro 2008

Carta aberta aos líderes mundiais que comparecerão à cimeira de 15 de Novembro na Casa Branca acerca dos mercados financeiros e a economia mundial


por: Paul Davidson e Henry C.K. Liu


Caros líderes do mundo:


O Inverno de 2008-2009 provará ser o inverno do descontentamento económico global a marcar a rejeição da ideologia enviesada de que mercados financeiros globais não regulamentados promovem a inovação, a eficiência do mercado, o crescimento sem restrições e a prosperidade sem fim ao mesmo tempo que reduzem o risco através da sua difusão por todo o sistema. Durante mais de três décadas a corrente dominante de economistas neoliberais pregou, e os reguladores aceitaram, o mito da eficiência dos mercados não regulamentados, ignorando a lição crítica proporcionada pela análise de John Maynard Keynes da interconexão dos mercados financeiros e do sistema de pagamentos internacional.


Aqueles que não aprendem as lições da história estão destinados a repetir as suas tragédias. Os economistas neoliberais nas últimas três décadas negaram a possibilidade de uma repetição da destruição da Grande Depressão à escala mundial após o colapso da bolha especulativa criada pelos mercados financeiros sem restrições dos EUA dos "Frenéticos anos 20". Eles enganaram-se a si próprios ao pensar que a falsa prosperidade construída sobre a dívida poderia ser sustentável com complacência monetária. Agora a história está a repetir-se, desta vez com o vírus novo e mais letal que infestou os mercados financeiros globais desregulamentados: a "inovadora" titularização de dívidas, as finanças estruturadas e as operações bancárias independentes inundadas com o excesso de liquidez libertado por bancos centrais acomodatícios. Uma maciça estrutura de riqueza fantasma foi construída sobre a areia movediça da manipulação da dívida. Esta bolha da dívida finalmente implodiu em Julho de 2007 e agora está a ameaçar deitar abaixo todo o sistema financeiro global e a provocar um colapso económico a menos que liderança política esclarecida adopte medidas correctivas numa escala global.


O problema das hipotecas sub-prime dos EUA que começou em 2007 redundou como era de esperar num pântano que provocou a falha dos mercados financeiros interconectados e ameaçou a viabilidade de instituições financeiras à escala mundial pelo contágio propagado à velocidade electrónica através de um antiquado e disfuncional sistema internacional de pagamentos.


Para deter o colapso financeiro global, pode-se aprender muito com a visão de Keynes de como o sistema internacional de pagamentos deveria funcionar para permitir a cada país promover uma política de pleno emprego sem ter de temer problemas de balança de pagamentos ou permitir que incidentes financeiros infectem o sistema bancário interno e sistemas financeiros não-bancários.


Uma outra Grande Depressão pode ser evitada se os líderes mundiais reconsiderarem o sistema analítico de John Maynard Keynes que contribuiu para a era dourada do primeiro quarto de século após a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Os signatários e outros há muito advogam uma nova arquitectura financeira internacional baseada numa versão actualizada para o século XXI do Plano Keynes originalmente proposta em Bretton Woods no ano de 1944.


Esta nova arquitectura financeira internacional tem como objectivo criar (1) um novo regime monetário global que opere sem divisa hegemónica, (2) um relacionamento do comércio global que apoie o desenvolvimento interno ao invés de retardá-lo e (3) um ambiente económico global que promova incentivos a cada país para promover o pleno emprego e aumentar os salários da sua força de trabalho.


Atentamente, Paul Davidson

Editor,
Journal of Post Keynesian Economics
Visiting Scholar
Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis,
The New School, New York

Henry C.K. Liu
Visiting Professor of Global Development,
Department of Economics,
University of Missouri-Kansas City

Texto original em: http://henryckliu.com/page174.html e

http://atimes.com/atimes/Global_Economy/JK08Dj06.html
Lista parcial de apoiantes:
Irma Adelman
Professor in Graduate School
University of California at Berkeley

Olivier Allain
Associate Professor in Economics
Université Paris Descartes
France

Philip Arestis
Director of Research
University of Cambridge, UK

Dr. George Argitis
Senior Lecturer
Dept. of Economics
University of Athens

Angel Asensio
University Paris 13
Member of the ADEK and PKSG

H. Sonmez Atesoglu
Professor of Economics
School of Business,
Clarkson University
Potsdam, NY

Rainer Bartel
Associate Professor of Economics
Johannes Kepler University
Linz, Austria

Renaud Bellais, Ph.D.
Associate Professor in Economics
French Army Academy (Saint Cyr)
Manager for European Defence and Security Affairs
Institutional Relations,
EADS ASTRIUM
Paris

Janine Berg
Senior Labour Economist
International Labour Office
Brasilia, Brazil

Dr Dirk Bezemer
University of Groningen
The Netherlands

Dr. Wolfgang Blaas
Associate Professor
Department of Spatial Development,br> Infrastructure and Environmental Planning,

Centre of Public Finance and Infrastructure Policy
Vienna University of Technology

W. Robert Brazelton.
Professor-Emeritus/Economics
University of Missouri-Kansas City


Luiz Carlos Bresser Pereira
Professor Emérito da Fundação Getúlio Vargas
-Brazil

Christopher Brown
Professor of Economics
Arkansas State University


Paul D. Bush
Professor Emeritus of Economics
California State University, Fresno


Fernando J. Cardim de Carvalho
Professor of Economics
Institute of Economics,
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Àngels Martínez i Castells
Economist.
Former professor of Barcelona University

Massimo Cingolani
Directorate for Operations in the European Union and Candidate Countries
European Investment Bank
Luxembourg

Laurent Cordonnier
Assistant Professor
Faculty of economics and social sciences
Lille 1 University
France

Eugenia Correa
Posgrado de Economía
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

Dr. James M. Cypher
Researcher-Professor, Economics
Doctorate in Development Studies
Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas,
Zacatecas, Mexico

Georgios Daremas
Senior Lecturer
Dept of Communication and Media,
University of Indianapolis, Athens-campus.

Sheila C. Dow
Professor
Department of Economics
University of Stirling
Scotland, UK

Miguel Angel Duran.
Lecturer in Economic Theory
University of Malaga, Spain

Luca Fantacci
Assistant Professor
Department of Institutional Analysis and Public Management
Bocconi University
Milano, Italy

Carmem Feijo
Associated professor
Fluminense Federal University in Rio de Janeiro, and
Executive Secretary
National Association of Postgraduates Programs in Economics.

Marica Frangakis
Member of the Board of the Nicos Poulantzas Institute
Athens, Greece

Jorge GARCIA-ARIAS
Associate Professor of Economics
Department of Economics
University of Leon, Spain

Anna Mª Garriga
economist
Barcelona, Spain

Marilena Giannetti
Department of Public Economics
University of Rome "La Sapienza"
Italy

Alicia Girón
Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas
Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México

Claude Gnos
Associate Professor
Université de Bourgogne and Cemf
France

Ian Gough AcSS
Professor of Social Policy
University of Bath
UK


Eric R. Hake
Assistant Professor
Eastern Washington University

Han Deqiang
Associate Research Fellow
Beijing University of Aeronautics


Geoff Harcourt
Professor Emeritus
Reader in the history of Economic Theory
Cambridge University

Distinguished Fellow of the History of Economics Society
Visisting Professor Fellow, University of New South Wales.


John T. Harvey
Professor of Economics
Texas Christian University


Baban Hasnat
Professor
Dept. of Business Administration & Economics
The College at Brockport
State University of New York
USA

Geoffrey M. Hodgson
Professor of Economics
University of Hertfordshire
Hatfield, UK

Jörg Huffschmid
Professor of economic policy and political economy
University of Bremen, Germany

Edwin le Heron
Sciences Po Bordeaux
France

Bo Jonsson
Retired economist from the Swedish LO and the ITUC (formerly ICFTU)
Member of the administrative board of the European Institute for Asian Studies
Brussels, Belgium

Tadeusz Kowalik
Professor of Economics and Humanities
Polish Academy of Sciences
Warsaw, Poland

Dany Lang
Maître de Conférences at the University of Paris


Lena Lavinas
Assistant Professor of Welfare Economics
Institute of Economics at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Brazil


Frederic S. Lee
Professor
Department of Economics
University of Missouri
Kansas City - USA


Hoesung Lee
Professor of Economics
College of Environment

Keimyung University
Daegu, Korea


Noemi Levy-Orlik
Professor
Economic Department
National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM)


Li, Chang-ping
Hebei University-China Village
Construction Reaserch Center Director


Henry van Maasakker
Economist.
Euromemorandumgroup
The Netherlands


Ricardo Paes Mamede
Professor of Economics at ISCTE
Lisbon University Institute


Wesley Colin Marshall
Professor of Economics
Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

Brent McClintock
Associate Professor of Economics
Department of Economics
Carthage College
Kenosha, Wisconsin


John McCombie
Director,
Cambridge Centre for Economic and Public Policy
Department of Land Economy
University of Cambridge, UK


Sergio Cabrera Morales
Economics Faculty
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México


Tracy Mott
Associate Professor
Dept. of Economics
University of Denver

Antonio Carlos Macedo e Silva
Instituto de Economia - UNICAMP
Campinas (SP) Brazil

Alcino Ferreira Camara Neto
Dean of Law and Economics
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Brazil

Paulette Olson
Professor
Department of Economics
Wright State University
Dayton, Ohio

Ozlem Onaran
Associate Professor
Vienna University of Economics
Austria

Walter O. Ötsch
Head of the Centre for Social and Cross-cultural Competency
Johannes Kepler Universität
Linz, Austria

Athanasios G. Papaioannou
Professor
University of Thessaly
Greece


Jorgen Lindgaard Pedersen
Associate Professor
Technical University of Denmark


Maria Cristina Penido de Freitas
Brazilian Economist,
Ph. D. on Economics by University Paris

Wolfgang Polt
Head of Vienna Office of Joanneum Research
Institute for Technology and Regional Policy
Vienna

Daniela Magalhães Prates
Professor of the Economy Institute of University of Campinas
Brazil

Alcino F. Camara Neto
Professor and Dean
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Brazil

Clyde Prestowitz
President
The Economic Strategy Institute
Washington D.C.

Dr. Werner Raza
Austrian Chamber of Labor and
Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration
Austria

Colin L. Richardson
Internet Economist

William Penney
Laboratory
Imperial College, London

Louis-Philippe Rochon
Associate Professor
Laurentian University
Canada

Jacqueline Runje
PRESOM Coordination Assistant
University of Dortmund
Faculty of Spatial Planning
IRPUD Institute of Spatial Planning
Germany

Zdzislaw L. Sadowski
Professor of Development Economics
University of Warsaw
Poland

Irma Erendira Sandoval
Social Science Research Institute
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

Prof. Dr. Thomas Sauer
Professor für Volkswirtschaftslehre - of Economics
FB Betriebswirtschaft - Dep. of Business Administration
Fachhochschule Jena - University of Applied Sciences

Jena, Germany

Ingo Schmidt
Labour Studies
Athabasca University
Canada

Prof. Dr. herbert Schui
Former professor of economics
University for Economics and Policy


Hamburg, Germany
M.P. at the Deutscher Bundestag
Parliamentary Group DIE LINKE Economic Spokesman


Mario Seccareccia
Professor of Economics,
University of Ottawa,
Canada
Editor,
International Journal of Political Economy


Mark Setterfield
Professor of Economics
Trinity College, CT USA

Anwar Shaikh
Professor of Economics
Department of Economics, Graduate Faculty
New School for Social Research


Catherine SIFAKIS,
assistant professor of Economics
University P. Mendès France of Grenoble
France


Jeffrey Sommers
Visiting Professor
Stockholm School of Economics in Riga


Dr. Engelbert Stockhammer
Dept of Economics
Vienna University of Economics and Business
Vienna, Austria


Dr. Servaas Storm
Dept of Economics,
faculty TPM,
Delft University of Technology
The Netherlands


James I. Sturgeon
Professor of Economics & Economics Department Chair
University of Missouri-Kansas City
Senator Eduardo Matarazzo Suplicy (PT-SP)
Brazil


Prof. Dr. Claus Thomasberger
Faculty of Economics
University of Applied Sciences
Berlin, Germany


Éric Tymoigne
Assistant Professor
Department of Economics
California State University, Fresno


Cathleen Whiting
Associate Professor of Economics
Willamette University


Gregorio Vidal
Department of Economics, Posgraduate Programme
Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana
Mexico

Roderich Wahsner
Professor Emeritus of Labor Law
University of Bremen
Germany


L. Randall Wray
Research Director
Center for Full Employment and Price Stability
Department of Economics
University of Missouri-Kansas City
Senior Scholar


Levy Economics Institute
dr.Emiel F.M. Wubben
Wageningen University & Researchcenter
Business Administration/ Management Studies Group/ Bedrijfskunde
Social Sciences Group
Wageningen, The Netherlands

Haibo Yan
Associate professor
Postdoctoral Mobile Research Station
Institute of Economics
Chinese Academy of Social Sciences

Bin Yang
Associate Research Fellow
Institute of Industrial Economy
Chinese Academy of Social Sciences



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Atribuído Pela nossa querida amiga e colaboradora deste espaço, a Marcela Isabel Silveira. Em meu nome, e dos nossos colaboradores, OBRIGADO.

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